Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases

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Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases


Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases
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Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases


Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases
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Author : Yufeng Wang
language : en
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2021-07-08

Evolutionary Mechanisms Of Infectious Diseases written by Yufeng Wang and has been published by Frontiers Media SA this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2021-07-08 with Science categories.




Genetics And Evolution Of Infectious Diseases


Genetics And Evolution Of Infectious Diseases
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Author : Michel Tibayrenc
language : en
Publisher: Elsevier
Release Date : 2017-01-12

Genetics And Evolution Of Infectious Diseases written by Michel Tibayrenc and has been published by Elsevier this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2017-01-12 with Medical categories.


Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease

Strain Diversity And The Population Dynamics Of Rotavirus


Strain Diversity And The Population Dynamics Of Rotavirus
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Author : Pamela Martinez Vargas
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2017

Strain Diversity And The Population Dynamics Of Rotavirus written by Pamela Martinez Vargas and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2017 with categories.


The ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that influence the population dynamics of infectious diseases remain an active area of research of relevance to fundamental biology and applied public health. Here, I have considered rotavirus as a study system to better understand the effect of environmental drivers on transmission dynamics, and strain competition in the context of evolution on pathogen diversity. I first studied the effect of climate variability on rotavirus population dynamics in a heterogeneous urban landscape, and compared to rural ones in a developing country, Bangladesh. To carry out this project, I implemented a process-based model of pathogen spread in the core and periphery of Dhaka, and relied on surveillance data to address the role of the monsoons and how this varied in different parts of the city. These results show that the inclusion of spatial information is essential to better understand the seasonality and inter-annual variation of the disease transmission and its response to climate anomalies. I then extended the epidemiological model to consider different serotypes and to interrogate serotype-specific surveillance data to understand the role of host immunity on rotavirus diversity. The main results of this work reveal a strong effect of generalized immunity on shaping this diversity. Lastly, I developed a theoretical approach to understand the effect of host-pathogen heterogeneity on pathogen diversity in the context of different immune responses. These results emphasize the importance of considering two kinds of phenotypic differences underlying also distinct kinds of competition when studying pathogen diversity, namely absolute differences that allow viruses to exploit different hosts (as resources), and frequency-dependent differences related to antigenic traits and resulting immunity. In particular, I emphasized the recognition that these two trait axes may not be independent. Improvements of current vaccines of limited efficiency in the developing world should result from an increased understanding of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that shape rotavirus diversity.

Ecological And Evolutionary Mechanisms For Emerging Infectious Diseases


Ecological And Evolutionary Mechanisms For Emerging Infectious Diseases
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Author : Nicole Nova
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2022

Ecological And Evolutionary Mechanisms For Emerging Infectious Diseases written by Nicole Nova and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2022 with categories.


SARS. Ebola. Zika. COVID-19. The majority of all new infectious diseases discovered in the last decades are transmitted from animals to humans. More and more diseases have "spilled over" from wildlife to humans and escalated into pandemics, largely due to anthropogenic activities and global change, including climate change and land use change. Emerging diseases in wildlife can spill over from one species to another, decimating many vulnerable species. However, because human and wildlife systems are so complex, we still lack a clear understanding of the mechanisms driving disease emergence. My dissertation fills some critical gaps in our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary drivers of infectious diseases within and across species. In Chapter 1, I showed how temperature, rainfall and susceptible population size (ecological drivers) affect the (re)emerging mosquito-borne disease dengue. I used a data-driven approach for inferring causal relationships in nonlinear systems and demonstrated that suitable climate can only promote epidemics when the susceptible population is sufficiently large. In Chapter 2, I uncovered ecological and evolutionary drivers of pathogen sharing between different species using datasets of organisms and their pathogens, and their ecological and phylogenetic similarities, to understand how pathogens have adapted to multiple organisms. Here, I quantified the relative importance between ecological and evolutionary factors for predicting pathogen sharing by taxonomic level. Finally, Chapter 3 highlights a wildlife disease case study using genomic analyses of canine distemper virus (CDV) sampled from different carnivores in Alaska and Yellowstone to understand how viruses evolve in wildlife and what disease dynamics they cause. All these findings will help facilitate more effective preventative disease management strategies to improve human and animal health. In sum, my dissertation will help bridge the knowledge gap between ecological and evolutionary drivers of infectious diseases to better understand spillover and subsequent outbreaks. My research will help lay the foundation for future interdisciplinary studies in disease ecology and molecular evolution and will improve the effectiveness of both public health strategies and wildlife conservation.

Immunology And Evolution Of Infectious Disease


Immunology And Evolution Of Infectious Disease
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Author : Steven A. Frank
language : en
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date : 2002-07-21

Immunology And Evolution Of Infectious Disease written by Steven A. Frank and has been published by Princeton University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2002-07-21 with Medical categories.


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Virus Evolution


Virus Evolution
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Author : Scott C. Weaver
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2016-01

Virus Evolution written by Scott C. Weaver and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2016-01 with Medical categories.


The field of virus evolution has developed during the past three decades from one considered by many to be esoteric and unimportant for human and agricultural health, to a major driver of our thinking about infectious diseases of plants and animals. The field has been spurred on during the past 30 years by emerging viral diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hantaviruses, SARS, MERS and Ebola, and discoveries of the quasispecies nature and potential for rapid evolution and diversification of RNA virus populations. Over time the focus of research has expanded and developed to encompass a diverse mixture of approaches: from highly theoretical and mechanistic studies of the basic evolutionary mechanisms to detailed research on the molecular host range and virulence changes responsible for emerging viral diseases. This timely book addresses a wide range of current questions and research approaches at the forefront of the field and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the history and mechanisms of virus evolution. Wherever possible authors have integrated information from the study of plant, animal and bacterial viruses. Every effort has been made to unify findings and to highlight the diversity in patterns and modes of virus evolution between systems in order to aid comparative analysis. Essential reading for everyone working on virus evolution and emerging viral diseases, the book is also recommended reading for anyone working in the area of viral pathogenesis.

Bacterial Genomes And Infectious Diseases


Bacterial Genomes And Infectious Diseases
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Author : Ricky V.L Chan
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-11-06

Bacterial Genomes And Infectious Diseases written by Ricky V.L Chan and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2007-11-06 with Medical categories.


The first bacterial genome, Haemophilus influenzae, was completely sequenced, annotated, and published in 1995. Today, more than 200 prokaryotic (archaeal and bacterial) genomes have been completed and over 500 prokaryotic genomes are in va- ous stages of completion. Seventeen eukaryotic genomes plus four eukaryotic chro- somes have been completed. The concept of achieving better understanding of an organism through knowledge of the complete genomic sequence was first demonstrated in 1978 when the first bacteriophage genome, X174, was sequenced. Complete genomic sequences of prokaryotes have led to a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the microbes, and, for pathogens, facilitated identification of new vaccine candidates, putative virulence genes, targets for antibiotics, new strategy for rapid diagnosis, and investigation of bacteria–host interactions and disease mec- nisms. Recent increased interest in microbial pathogens and infectious diseases is largely attributed to the re-emergence of infectious diseases like tuberculosis, emergence of new infectious diseases like AIDS and severe acute respiratory syndrome, the problem of an increasing rate of emergence of antibiotic-resistant variants of pathogens, and the fear of bioterrorism. Microbes are highly diverse and abundant in the biosphere. Less than 1% of these morphologically identified microbes can be cultured in vitro using standard techniques and conditions. With such abundance of microbes in nature, we can expect to see new variants and new species evolve and a small number will emerge as pathogens to humans.